The statement of the three heads of state and government at the end of the conference, on 1 December 1943, listed the following military conclusions: Roosevelt drew up a plan to divide the country into several autonomous regions, with the main industrial and commercial centres under international control. Churchill felt that this was impractical and preferred instead a kind of north-south divide that weakened “preusism” at the expense of what he saw as the less militaristic and aggressive regions of southern Germany. Stalin saw things differently and said that all Germans were belligerent and infidian by propensity and that their country had to be permanently fragmented, with no possibility of reunification. Participants were divided on the need to divide Germany after the war, with the parties different in terms of the number of divisions necessary for their ability to wage war.  While the proposed figures were very different and were never used, the powers would effectively divide modern Germany in two until the end of the Cold War. At a dinner, Churchill asked Stalin about his post-war territorial ambitions, and Stalin replied: “There is no need to talk about Soviet desires at the moment, but when the time comes, we will talk.” Stalin was hesitant to leave Moscow and was not prepared to risk air travel, while Roosevelt was physically disabled and found it difficult to travel. Churchill was an enthusiastic traveller and had already met Roosevelt five times in North America and twice in Africa as part of an ongoing series of war conferences, and had also had two previous meetings with Stalin in Moscow.  To organize this urgent meeting, Roosevelt tried to persuade Stalin to go to Cairo. Stalin refused this offer and also offered to meet in Baghdad or Basra, and finally agreed to meet in Tehran in November 1943.  But as his troops occupied much of Germany and Eastern Europe, Stalin was able to effectively ratify the concessions he won at Yalta and put pressure on his advance on Truman and Churchill (replaced in the middle of the conference by Prime Minister Clement Atlee). In March 1946, barely a year after the Yalta Conference, Churchill delivered his famous speech in which he declared that an “iron curtain” had fallen on Eastern Europe, marking the definitive end of cooperation between the Soviet Union and its Western allies and the beginning of the Cold War.